In the constant war against predation, plants have been extremely inventive. Their chemical arsenal includes alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, benzoxazinoids, terpenoids, and phenolics. They’ve invented thorns and armored coatings ranging from wax to resin. They have pressure sensitivity whose responses range from mild curling away to far more violent explosions. They’ve event entered into agreements with fungi, other plants and less dangerous animals, forming multi-species treaties that last for centuries.

It is not going well for them.